BT Imaging

Designed in consultation with leading manufacturers of silicon bricks and ingots, BT Imaging's new silicon brick and ingot inspection production tool reports bulk lifetime and enables the production of silicon wafers that are ideal for high efficiency solar cells. This tool is for quality control and process development in silicon ingot and brick production facilities. Bricks and ingots are loaded manually or robotically. Throughput is designed to allow for 100% of product.

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Type: Metrology

Tool Layout
Tool Layout 1

1. Wide open loading bay allows for manual or robotic load, rotation and unload

2. Auto translation stage

3. PL Imaging System

4. Measurement Zone

5. Control System and Servers

Tool Layout 2

6. Adjustable brick stage for different brick length

  • Max brick size
    • 156 x 156 x 650 mm
    • May be configured for larger bricks upon special request



Applications | Automation Options | Reported Metrics


 Sample Type Multi-Brick & Mono-Ingot


- Wafer specifications based on bulk lifetime & defects
- QA & QC in silicon casting
- Process debug in casting
- Process and product improvement in casting
- Cutting guide for silicon bricks to remove low quality material with lowest loss of good quality material
- R&D in casting and wafering
- Option for wafer and cell defect inspection


- Manual or Factory Robot Load
- Manual or Factory Robot Rotation
- InkJet marking of Cutting Guides


- Bulk Lifetime image resolution in µS measured at 1024 micron resolution in both x and y
- PL Imaging Silicon Defects - PL Images
- PL Imaging Silicon Defects - proprietary metrics and overlays for (a) multi - dislocations & impure regions, (b) mono - dark line features and slip lines
- Cutting Guide is based on pre-set Bulk Lifetime and defect values and reports distance from the end in mm





Inspection System and Automation Technology  Specification 

Camera Technology  Proprietary CCD Technology 

Camera Depth of Field  +/- 2mm 
Camera Resolution  160umpixel =1024(max)LineScan 

Laser Class 1. Interlocks on Optical Enclosure doors. Laser cooling required (BT Imaging can provide a specification for the laser cooling or a cooling unit can be purchased from BT Imaging as an optional extra) 

Cycle Time

20-60 Seconds Per Brick Face (subject to measurement mode and required resolution) – up to 2GW throughput per annum per tool.

3-5 minutes per brick for measurement of all 4 sides; Wafer and Cell throughput times - ca. 20 seconds per sample

Material Multi and Mono Bricks, Raw Wafers, Half Processed Wafers and Finished Cells 

Loading of All Sample & Rotation of Brick Sample  Manual or Factory Robot 

Measurement Automatic – Sample Returns to Unload/Rotate Position 

Inspection on Bricks 

Bulk Lifetime Image at up to 80um per pixel resolution, bulk lifetime in 𝓊S

PL Imaging Silicon Defects

PL Imaging Silicon Defects – proprietary metrics and overlays for (a) multi – dislocations & impure regions, (b) mono - dark line features and slip lines

Cutting Guide and Grading Guide – based on pre-set Bulk Lifetime

Inspection of Wafers  Multi wafers – Impure Edges, Impure Corners, Impure Middles , Dislocations, Q-factor (cell efficiency factor) Mono wafers - Dark Ring Strength , Dark Corner Defects, RDS, Cracks, Dark PL Features 

Inspection on Cells (under continuous development) 

Multi cells – Wafer defects (Impure Edges, Impure Corners, Impure Middles , Dislocations), Series resistance Defects (Broken Finger Location, Broken Finger Region of Influence, Bright PL Lines, Bright PL Areas)

Mono Cells – Wafer Defects (Ring Defects, Dark Corner Defects, Dark Middle Defect, Cracks, Dark PL Features), Series resistance Defects (Broken Finger Location, Broken Finger Region of Influence, Bright PL Lines, Bright PL Areas, Firing Issues)

Inspection on Thick Mono Slugs (OPTOINAL BY REQUEST)  Mono slugs – non-uniformity, RDS, Bright corner strength, Bright corner width, Dark corner strength, Dark corner width, Middle brightness, Radius, Ring strength 

GUI 22” TFT and Keyboard 

Brick Max Size  156 x 156 x 650 mm 

Machine Size & Weight  2.15m Long x 0.70m (deep) x 1.73 m (high), approximately 350 kg 

Inkjet Printing  Inkjet marking to automatically mark brick for cutting zones. 200 DPI resolution (under development)


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